Enterprise and endeavor, these two words symbolize the essential spirit of the people of Punjab. Since Independence, over 5 decades ago, the state has earned its epithet : "of Granary India" through the enterprising spirit, and untiring toil of its people. The state of Punjab is divided into 17 administrative districts and has 120 towns & 12342 villages. All cities, towns, villages are electrified and well connected by road with more than 40,000 km road network. Its average growth rate of 10% is amongst the highest in the country, clearly reflecting the progressive economy of the state. Punjab also boasts a 58% literacy rate and the highest per capita income in India. Today's Punjab has become a land of boundless opportunities, offering distinct advantages for investment and industry. The state is indeed privileged by nature and the dynamism of its people. Since the recent liberalization of India's economy, Punjab has started making its mark on the global business mainstream, with major players from around the world forming joint ventures in the field of agri-business.


Punjab is a land of rivers, fertile soils and steady achievement. With its inimitable style of transforming every potential opportunity into a success story, the state was the first to translate agricultural technology into the "green revolution", recording highest growth rate in food production. From a minor producer it emerged a major rice surplus state. Providing the impetus for the "White revolution", during Operation Flood, it was Punjab that recorded the highest per capita availability of milk. Today's Punjab has over 1.97 lakh small and medium industries and about 653 large-scale industries. It leads in the manufacture of machine and hand tools; printing and paper cutting machinery; auto parts and electrical switchgear. The state also provides more than 75% of the country's requirement for bicycles, sewing machines, hosiery and sports goods. At par with the highest quality standards in the world, these products have carved a niche for themselves in markets across the globe.


Area: Punjab occupies an area of 50362 square kilometers (1.54 % of the India's total
geographical area.) which mostly comprises of plains.

Punjab is situated in the northwest of India, it is bordered by Pakistan on the west, the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh on its northeast and Haryana and Rajasthan to its south.


The people, around some 30 million, are prosperous and dexterous.

Rural Population : 70.45 %

Urban Population: 29.55 %

Languages: Punjabi and Hindi (Many people are fluent in English & Urdu)

Rupee (100 paise equals one rupee)

State Animal:
Black Buck - Locally called "Kala Hiran", the Black Buck is a graceful antelope is blessed with a striking color and spiraled horns. The fawn's coat is yellowish but it turns black at maturity. It is found in the plains and avoid forests and hilly tracks. Mostly found in herds of 20-30, large herds may number several hundreds. With a keen eyesight and speed, it responds to alarm call by leaps and bounds.

State Bird:
Baaz (Eastern Goshawk) State Tree: Shisham (Tahli)

Find Punjab located in North-West India, around 35 degree latitude and 74 degree longitude. It is on the globe at 29'30'' N to 32'32'' N latitude and 73'55 E to 76'50 E longitude.

Climatically the state has three major seasons. Hot weather ( April to June) when temperature rises as high as 110 F. Rainy season ( July to September ). Average  rainfall annual ranges between 96 cms sub-mountain region and 58 cms in the plains. Cold weather ( October to March ). Temperature goes down as low as 40F.The normal temperatures ranges between 5 degree during winter to 38 degree during summer. Annual rainfall is about 625 mm.


Major Land Features: Most of Punjab is a fertile plain; toward the southeast one finds semi-arid and desert landscape; a belt of undulating hills extends along the northeast at the foot of the Himalayas. Four rivers, the Ravi, Beas, Satluj and Ghaggar flow across the state in a south westerly direction. They have numerous small and seasonal tributaries. In addition, Punjab is watered by an extensive canal system. A vast network of canals and tube wells irrigate 90% of the cultivated area. Agriculture is the mainstay of Punjab's economy and 97 per cent of the total cultivable area is under the plough. The main crops grown are wheat, rice and cotton. Priority is being given to sugarcane, oil seeds, horticulture and forestry. Punjab farmers grew 211.61 lakh tonnes of food grains in 1997-98. Percentage contribution of wheat and rice to the Central Pool is 64.1 and 42 respectively, whereas cotton production constitutes 20 per cent of the national production. The state has recorded highest yield per hectare of wheat, rice, cotton and bajra. Per capita milk and egg production is highest in the country. Large quantities of the surplus of agriculture produce is available for agro-based industries. The state has an enterprising peasantry activity supported by the government .With only 2.99% of area sown and 3.90% of total cropped area of the country, the state on an average, account for 23% of Wheat , 14 % of cotton and 10% of rice production of the whole country.

Punjab is the largest single contributor to the central pool of rice and wheat. Consolidation of land holdings and subsequent advent of ' Green Revolution ' in the late sixties through the introduction of high yielding varieties , assured irrigation and use of fertilizers harnessed by hard working peasantry resulted in soaring productivity levels. In the year 1997-98 ( for which comparative data are available) per hectare yield of 3853 kgs of wheat , 3465 kgs of rice and 477 kgs of cotton in Punjab where higher by 70% , 86% and 80% yield levels at all India level. In 1997-98 Punjab state had the highest per capita availability of 904 kgs of food grains per annum which stands way above the average for the country. To reduce dependence on wheat , paddy rotation , the state government is encouraging gradual shift in the cropping pattern to oil-seeds such as Sunflower and Soyabean with positive results. The state is on the threshold of a second spurt in productivity levels.

Facts: Punjab has 4.2 million hectares of well irrigated and fertile land in which cropping intensity is 182%. Having a geographical area of only 1.5%.Punjab produces 22% of the country's wheat(12.7 million tons), 9% of rice(6.8 million tons) and 24% of cotton(0.3 million tons). It contributes 60 to 70% of wheat and 40 to 50% of rice to the central pool. It has the largest tractor population in the country and highest per hectare consumption of fertilizers. In addition to the conventional crops, the main fruits grown are Kinnow /orange (250,000 Mts.), Mango(90,000 Mts.), Grape (65,000 Mts.), Pear(125,000 Mts.), Peach(65,000 Mts.), Litchi (12,000 Mts.) and Lemon (7,000 Mts.). The main vegetables grown are potato(10,00,000 Mts.), Root Crops (3,00,000 Mts.), Tomato (1,40,000 Mts.), Onion (55,000 Mts.), Cabbage (28,000 Mts.), Cauliflower (57,000 Mts.) and Brinjal (27,000 Mts.)


Punjab & Green Revolution


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