CROP GUIDE - RICE

SUGGESTED PACKAGE OF PRACTICES

RICE

During 1999-2000  rice was grown on 26.04 hectares with total production of 17.16 lakh tonnes. The yield was  3347 kg per hectare (1338 kg per acre). The average  yield in terms of paddy in Punjab was 5020 kg per hectare (2008 kg per acre).

SUGGESTED VARIETIES

VARIETY

SALIENT FEATURES

AVG. HEIGHT   (CMS)

DAYS TO MATURE

DISEASE

RESISTANCE

AVG. YIELD

KG/ACRE

GRAIN/COOKING

QUALITY

PR-116  

Semi-dwarf, stiff straw, narrow dark green erect  leaves

108

144

Lodging tolerant/ bacterial blight

2800

long slender translucent/very good

PR-114

Semi-dwarf, stiff-straw, narrow light green erect leaves  

102

145

Bacterial   blight

  2750  

long clear  translucent/good

PR-108  

Short-stature, stiff straw, erect leaved

 117

145 

Bacterial  blight

 2650

long, slender clear/

good

PR-106    

Short-stature, stiff straw, erect leaved    

 107

145 

No

2600 

long, slender

PR-115   

Short-stature, stiff straw, dark green erect  leaves   

100

    125     

Bacterial   blight

 2500

long, slender,

translucent/good

PR-113    

Short-stature, stiff straw, dark green erect leaves       

   105

  142   

Bacterial   blight

2800

 bold and

PR-111

Short stature, stiff straw, erect leaves

  97

138

Bacterial   blight

2700

long, slender, clear/very good

AGRONOMIC PRACTICES:

Application of farmyard manure: Apply six tonnes of farmyard manure per acre and save 16 kg of N (35 Kg of Urea). Since farmyard manure is not available in the required quantities, green manuring by dhaincha/cowpea/sun hemp is the suggested alternative. After harvesting wheat or any other preceding crop, apply rauni and sow 20 kg/acre dhaincha seed pre-socked in water for 8 hours or 12 kg/acre of cowpea (20 kg bold seed is used) or 20 kg/acre of sun hemp upto first week of May. Apply 75 kg of superphosphate per acre to dhaincha/cowpea/sunhemp and omit application of phosphorus to succeeding rice crop. Burry 6 to 8 weeks old dhaincha/cowpea/sun hemp one day before transplanting of paddy. This practice results in saving of 25 kg of N (55 kg urea)  per acre. To get higher yield practice green manuring and apply recommended dose of nitrogen (50 kg N/acre) to rice grown in loamy sand to sandy loam soils.

Land Preparation: Repair all bunds. Obtain a fine well leveled puddle to reduce water loss through percolation, to maintain good seedling vigour and control weeds.

  Seed-Rate and Seed Treatment:  Dip the seed in suitable lots in water contained in tub/bucket. Stir the seed and remove immature grains which float at the top. The heavy seeds will settle down at the bottom. Eight kg of heavy seed is sufficient for transplanting an acre. Heavy seed ensures healthy, sturdy and uniform seedlings. Soak the selected seed in 10 litres of water containing g Ceresan wet and 1 g Streptocycline for  8 to 10 hours before sowing. If Ceresan wet is not available, use  10 g Agallot or 5 g Tafasan/Aaretan.

Nursery Raising: The time and method of sowing are important for getting healthy seedlings.

(i) Time of Nursery Sowing: 10th to 20th May is the optimum time of sowing for all recommended varieties.

 (ii) Land Preparation, Fertilisers and Method of Sowing: Mix 12 to 15 tonnes of well-rotten farmyard manure or compost per acre in the soil.  Irrigate the  field to permit the germination of weeds. Plough the field twice after a week to kill germinated weeds. Thereafter at the time of nursery  sowing, Flood the field and puddle it well. Bullock drawn or tractor drawn puddling implements. Apply  26 kg urea and 60 kg super phosphate per acre to the soil at the last puddling. For raising healthy seedlings  broadcast zinc sulphate  at 40 kg per acre  to the nursery. Prepare  plots measuring 10m x 2m or  any other convenient size.

Pre germinate the wet treated seeds by spreading them uniformly, 7-8 cm thick, over wet gunny bags and cover the same with wet gunny bags. Keep the layer of seeds moist by sprinkling water on it periodically. The seeds sprout in about 24 - 26 hours.

Sow the pre germinated seed at 1 kg per 20 sq. metres by broadcasting. Keep the soil moist by irrigating the plot frequently. To check the damage from birds, broadcast a thin layer of well decomposed farmyard manure immediately after broadcasting rice seed. Apply another dose of 25 kg urea per acre about a fortnight after sowing so as t get the seedlings ready for transplanting in 25 - 30 days. However, if a nursery  of about 45 days or above is to be transplanted, apply another dose of 25 kg urea  after four weeks of sowing. Eight seed beds (6.5 marlas)  sown with 8 kg of seed are sufficient to transplant an acre. In case, any insect attack or disease appears in the nursery, adopt the recommended plant protection measures.

Irrigate the nursery regularly. The seedlings are ready when 2- - 25 cm tall or with 6 - 7 leaves. If the seedlings in the nursery show yellowing of leaf tips, spray them three times with 0.5 - 1 percent ferrous sulphate solution  (0.5 - 1 kg ferrous sulphate dissolved in 100 litres of water per acre) at weekly intervals. If the leaves turn rusty brown after becoming yellow, give a spray o 0.5 per cent zinc sulphate solution (0.5 kg zinc sulphate in 100 litres of water per acre).

CAUTION: To avoid the mixing of varieties in the field, do not grow the rice at the site of last year's threshing.

(iii) Weed Ccontrol:   Swank and some other annual grasses are the main problems in rice nursery. These weeds can be controlled by the application of 1200 ml per acre of any liquid formulation of Butachlor 50 EC mixed with 60 kg of sand after 7 days of broadcasting pre-germinated rice seed. Alternatively apply SOFIT 37.5 EC (Pretilachlor  + Sanfer readymix) at 500 ml per acre     as sand mix 3 days after sowing of pre-germinated rice seed.

Preparation of Mat -Type Nursery for Paddy Transplanter :

Prepare soil mixed with farmyard manure in equal proportions. Add 400 g of nitrogen (900 g of ura) in about 20 baskets of this soil mixture. This soil is sufficient for growing seedlings for one acre. Level the ground where seedlings are to be sown and spread 50-60  gauge polythene sheet, 90 cm wide over it. Empty bags of gypsum or fertiliser can also be used for this purpose. Place one or wooden frames having 12 compartments of 40 x 20 x 2 cm  in each frame over the polythene sheet or empty bags. Polythene sheets weighing 350 g spread to a length of about 20 metres foe (200 mats) is sufficient for preparing seedlings for one acre. Fill the prepared soil mixture in the frame uniformly upto the top surface. Spread about 50 g of pre-germinated seed evenly in each compartment to achieve uniform density of 2 or 3 seedlings/sq cm in mat. About 10 kg seed is sufficient to sow 200 mats required for transplanting one acre.   Cover the seeds by a thin layer of soil and sprinkle water by hand sprayer for proper setting of the soil. Lift frames and put these at the next place and repeat the above procedure for sowing the required number of seedling mats. One person can sow seedlings for one acre in a day.

Transplantation :  

(i) Dates of Transplantation: Time of transplanting is a single factor which influences rice yield   substantially. For getting maximum yield of rice and for the timely  vacation of the field for  sowing wheat and other crops adopt the following transplantation schedule:

        10th June to 20th June                       PR 116, PR 114, PR 111, PR 108, PR 106 and PR 113

        20th June to 30th June                       PR 115

(ii) Age of Seedlings at Transplanting:  Start uprooting the nursery when the seedlings become 30 days old. As the transplanting proceeds, use seedlings from the same nursery sown in May.  Seedlings older than 30 days upto 55 days give better yield under late transplanting.

(iii) Uprooting of Seedlings:  Irrigate the nursery before uprooting. Wash the seedlings in water to remove mud.

(iv)  Method of Transplanting:  Transplant seedlings in lines at 20 x 15 cm (33 hills /sq m) for the normal and 15 x 15 cm (44 hills/sq m) for the late transplanting. Put 2 seedlings per hill. The seedlings should be transplanted upright and about 2-3 cm deep. This practice ensures good establishment of seedlings and early tillering, which are essential for good tiller development and synchronous flowering. Manually operated paddy transplanter can also be used for this operation.  

Weed Control:   

Interculture both the early and timely transplanted crops with paddy-weeder, 15days after transplanting and again after a fortnight. Where a paddy weeder cannot be run, hand weeding may be done.  

The use of herbicides is both efficient and economical. The following herbicides are recommended for use in transplanted rice 2 to 3 days after transplanting.                

NAME OF THE HERBICIDE                                            DOSE / ACRE

Butachlor 50 EC         

    Machete/Delchlor/Hiltachlor/Punch/HiRasayan/            1200 ml

    Shriram Butachlor/                                                                              

    Thunder/Capchlor/Milchlor/Megachlor/Fychlor/

    Narmadachlor/Trapp/ Teer/ArchlorMeghachlor/

    Butachlor-Sunbeam/Markchlor/Paklor/

    Banweed/Butacid/Jaibutachlor/

Anilofos   18 EC

    Arozin                                                                                    850 ml

Anilofos 30 EC

   Arizon/Aniloguard/Libra/Control/ H-30/                          500 ml

  Pestoanilofos/Markil/Jaifos/ Haragro-Anilofos/Padigard      500 ml

  Anilofos 50 EC

     Aniloguard                                                              300 ml

  Pendimethalin 30 EC                  

    Stomp                                                              1000-1200 ml

Pretilachlor 50 EC

    Rifit                                                                      600 ml 

FOR COMPLETE CONTROL OF WEEDS IN PADDY AND HIGH YIELD USE GOOD QUALITY BUTACHLOR

Notes:

In case of STOMP, use lower dose on light soils and higher dose on medium to heavy soils.

The liquid formulation of these herbicides may be mixed with 60 kg of sand/acre and broadcast uniformally in 4 - 5 cm deep standing water 2 - 3 days after transplanting. These herbicides are highly effective against Swank (Echinochloa crusgalli) and give moderate control of other weeds.  Arizon/Aniloguard/Libra H-30/Pestoanilfos/Markanil/Jaifos/Haragro-anilfos have an edge over other herbicides for control of Wrinkle Grass (Ischaemum rugosum).

THE CONTINUOUS USE OF A SINGLE GROUP OF HERBICIDE YEAR AFTER YEAR RESULTS IN THE APPEARANCE OF NEW WEEDS TYPES. TO CHECK THIS MENACE IT IS BETTER TO USE DIFFERENT GROUP OF RECOMMENDED HERBICIDES IN ROTATION.

  USE HAND GLOVES WHILE APPLYING THESE HERBICIDES

Control of Broadleaf Weeds:
For control of broadleaf weeds including Ghrilla (Caesulia axillaris), Sanni (Sphenoclea zeylanica) etc. apply Alley (Mestsulfuron) 20 WP at 30 g per 150 litres of water as post emergence, 20 - 25 days after transplanting. Before spray, the standing water from the field should be drained out and irrigation may be applied 1 day after the spray. The spray should be done on a clear and calm day in order to attain the good efficacy of the applied herbicide. Delay in application results in poor control of these weeds.

Irrigation and Drainage:

Provide graded channels for irrigation and drainage. Proper water management holds the key to successful rice cultivation.

Keep the water standing continuously  in the crop for two weeks after transplanting so that the seedlings get properly established. Afterwards, apply irrigation two days after the ponded water has infiltrated into the soil. In this way irrigation water can be saved without causing any reduction in the yield. The depth of standing water should not exceed 10 cm. Drain away excess water before inter-culture, weeding and irrigate the field after these operations. Stop irrigation about a fortnight before maturity to facilitate easy harvesting and timely sowing of the succeeding rabi crop.

ENSURE TIMELY APLICATION OF WEEDICIDES TO GET MAXIMUM BENEFIT OF THE STANDING WATER

Fertiliser Application:

Nutrient  (kg/acre)

Fertilisers (kg/acre)

N

*P2O5

*K2O5

**Urea

(46 % N)

***DAP
(18 % N 46 % P2O5)

*Superphosphate
(16 % P2 O5)

*Murate of Potash
(60% K2O)

50

12

12

110

27

75

20

  Note: These nutrients can also be applied from other fertilizers available in the market.

             * Apply only when the soil test shows deficiency of these nutrients.

           ** Make appropriate reductions for green-manuring and farmyard manure applied.

         *** When DAP is used, reduce the urea dose by 10 Kg.

Apply 1/3 nitrogen, the whole of phosphorus and potassium before the last puddling. Broadcast the remaining nitrogen in two splits one three weeks after  transplanting and the other three weeks afterwards. Phosphorous can be top dressed upto 21 days after transplanting. Skip phosphorus  application to rice if  recommended dose of phosphorus has been applied to the preceding wheat crop.   If possible apply the second dose and third split dose of nitrogen when water is not standing in the field. Irrigate on the third day of the application of fertilizer.

Reduce nitrogen dose by 1/3 if summer Moong has been buried after picking pods one day before the transplantation.

EXCESSIVE USE OF NITROGEN FERTILISERS PARTICULARLY TOWARDS FLOWERING CAUSES STERILITY AND CONSEQUENTLY HEAVY REDUCTION IN YIELD.

Zinc Deficiency: The symptoms of zinc deficiency appear 2 - 3 weeks after transplanting. The lower leaves become rusty brown near the base and ultimately dry up. The seedlings with zinc deficiency remain shunted and tiller less. To control this malady apply 25 kg of zinc sulphate per acre at puddling in case the previous crop in this field had shown the symptoms of zinc deficiency. Where the deficiency is noticed in the growing crop apply this quantity  of zinc sulphate as soon as possible.

In highly detoriated soils, the symptoms of zinc deficiency sometimes appear in patches even after the application of the recommended dose of zinc sulphate. In that event, broadcast 10 kg of zinc sulphate per acre mixed with an equal quantity of dry soil on the affected patches.

Iron Deficiency:

Under scarcity of water, chlorosis among seedlings appear in the youngest leaf about three weeks after the transplanting. Plants die and often the crop fails completely. Start giving copious irrigation as soon as chlorosis appear and give 2 - 3 sprays of one per cent ferrous sulphate solution at weekly intervals (1 kg of ferrous sulphate in 100 liters of water per acre.)

Harvesting and Threshing: Harvest the crop just before the ears are nearly ripe and the straw has turned yellow. If harvesting is delayed till the crop is delayed till the crop is dead ripe, the shattering of grains occurs. The milling quality of the grains is also affected. Rice is usually harvested by employing manual labour. Combines   have been successfully used foe harvesting short statured  varieties in well drained fields. Tractor-drawn vertical conveyor reaper windrower can also be used for harvesting rice.

Thresh the harvested crop the same day and do not leave it in the field exposed to dew. If it has been left overnight, cover the heap with polythene sheet. The grains which remain exposed to dew at night, develop sun cracks during the day and break on milling.

Threshing can be done either by beating the sheaves against some hard surface just after harvesting or by allowing the bullocks to tread on well dried plants. Paddy threshers operated by man power, engine or electric motors are also available. Multi-crop threshers can also be used for threshing wheat and paddy.

Production of Pure Seed: Select a good plot of the standing crop and rogue it thoroughly so that it is made free from all admixtures and diseased plants. Harvest and thresh this plot separately. Dry the produce well and store separately in disinfested bins.

Storing and Marketing: It is in the interest of the cultivator to take his produce from the field to the market directly, as it will save him the labour required for drying and storing. The farmers can also get their produce cleaned and sell it through Mechanical Grain Handling Facilities installed in selected markets of Punjab, which save time along with monetary incentive from Punjab Mandi Board. The produce kept for home use should be dried thoroughly in the sun for about a week and stored in bins or kept in a heap inside the room. The optimum moisture content for storage is 12 per cent.

Copyright Deptt of Agronomy, Khalsa College Amritsar-143002, INDIA
For questions and comments send email to agrikhalsa@yahoo.com